CentOS6.5安装vncserver实现图形化访问

一. 安装gnome图形化桌面

#yum groupinstall -y “X Window System”

#yum groupinstall -y “Desktop”

#yum groupinstall -y “Chinese Support”

二. 安装vncserver并配置

1.安装vncserver

#yum install -y tigervnc-server

2.配置vncserver

1).配置为开机自启动

#chkconfig –level 345 vncserver on

2).配置vnc密码

#vncserver

You will require a password to access your desktop.

Password:

Verify:

3).配置为使用gnome桌面

修改 /root/.vnc/xstartup文件,把最后的 twm & 删掉 加上 gnome-session &。

4).配置vncserver启动后监听端口和环境参数

修改/etc/sysconfig/vncservers 文件添加以下内容

VNCSERVERS=”1:root”

# 桌面号:用户    监听 590* 端口

VNCSERVERARGS[1]=”-geometry 1200×800″

5).重启vncserver服务

#service vncserver restart

三. 允许root访问图形界面和生成新的machine-id

#sed -i ‘s/.*!= root.*/#&/’ /etc/pam.d/gdm

#dbus-uuidgen >/var/lib/dbus/machine-id

四. 关闭selinux和NetworkManager服务

1.检查selinux服务并关闭

#vi /etc/selinux/config

确认里面的SELINUX字段的值是disabled,如果不是则改为disabled。

2.关闭NetworkManager服务

#chkconfig –del NetworkManager

五. 测试登录:

//——————

工具:install_vnc_server.sh

——————

功能:自动修改系统源和安装vncserver相关的软件包,centos、redhat系列都是安装gnome桌面环境,ubuntu和debian系列都是安装LXDE(Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment) 。目前不支持线上的OpenSUSE和Gentoo操作系统。

适用系统版本:兼容线上所有linux版本

执行方法:以root身份执行命令:bash install_vnc_server.sh

解决了什么问题:一键式安装vncserver,使用户可以远程图形化管理服务器

install_vnc_server.tgz

http://oss.aliyuncs.com/aliyunecs/install_vnc_server.tgz

#!/bin/bash
#########################################
#Function: install vnc server
#Usage: bash install_vnc_server.sh
#Author: Customer service department
#Company: Alibaba Cloud Computing
#Version: 3.0
#########################################

check_os_release()
{
while true
do
os_release=$(grep “Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release” /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
os_release_2=$(grep “Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release” /etc/redhat-release 2>/dev/null)
if [ “$os_release” ] && [ “$os_release_2” ]
then
if echo “$os_release”|grep “release 5” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=redhat5
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “release 6” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=redhat6
echo “$os_release”
else
os_release=””
echo “$os_release”
fi
break
fi
os_release=$(grep “Aliyun Linux release” /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
os_release_2=$(grep “Aliyun Linux release” /etc/aliyun-release 2>/dev/null)
if [ “$os_release” ] && [ “$os_release_2” ]
then
if echo “$os_release”|grep “release 5” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=aliyun5
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “release 6” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=aliyun6
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “release 7” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=aliyun7
echo “$os_release”
else
os_release=””
echo “$os_release”
fi
break
fi
os_release_2=$(grep “CentOS” /etc/*release 2>/dev/null)
if [ “$os_release_2” ]
then
if echo “$os_release_2″|grep “release 5” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=centos5
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release_2″|grep “release 6” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=centos6
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release_2″|grep “release 7” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=centos7
echo “$os_release”
else
os_release=””
echo “$os_release”
fi
break
fi
os_release=$(grep -i “ubuntu” /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
os_release_2=$(grep -i “ubuntu” /etc/lsb-release 2>/dev/null)
if [ “$os_release” ] && [ “$os_release_2” ]
then
if echo “$os_release”|grep “Ubuntu 10” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=ubuntu10
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “Ubuntu 12.04” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=ubuntu1204
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “Ubuntu 12.10” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=ubuntu1210
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “Ubuntu 14.04” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=ubuntu1204
echo “$os_release”
else
os_release=””
echo “$os_release”
fi
break
fi
os_release=$(grep -i “debian” /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
os_release_2=$(grep -i “debian” /proc/version 2>/dev/null)
if [ “$os_release” ] && [ “$os_release_2” ]
then
if echo “$os_release”|grep “Linux 6” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=debian6
echo “$os_release”
elif echo “$os_release”|grep “Linux 7” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
os_release=debian7
echo “$os_release”
else
os_release=””
echo “$os_release”
fi
break
fi
break
done
}

exit_script()
{
echo -e “\033[1;40;31mInstall $1 error,will exit.\n\033[0m”
rm -f $LOCKfile
exit 1
}

update_source()
{
wget “http://oss.aliyuncs.com/aliyunecs/update_source.tgz?spm=5176.7150518.1996836753.5.67nzlg&file=update_source.tgz” -O update_source.tgz
tar -zxvf update_source.tgz
bash update_source.sh
}

rhel5_vnc_config()
{
cat >$vnc_xstartup_config<<EOF
#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:
# unset SESSION_MANAGER
# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r \$HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb \$HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &
xterm -geometry 80×24+10+10 -ls -title “\$VNCDESKTOP Desktop” &
#twm &
gnome-session &
EOF
cat >$vnc_sysconfig_vncservers<<EOF
# The VNCSERVERS variable is a list of display:user pairs.
#
# Uncomment the lines below to start a VNC server on display :2
# as my ‘myusername’ (adjust this to your own). You will also
# need to set a VNC password; run ‘man vncpasswd’ to see how
# to do that.
#
# DO NOT RUN THIS SERVICE if your local area network is
# untrusted! For a secure way of using VNC, see
# <URL:http://www.uk.research.att.com/archive/vnc/sshvnc.html>.

# Use “-nolisten tcp” to prevent X connections to your VNC server via TCP.

# Use “-nohttpd” to prevent web-based VNC clients connecting.

# Use “-localhost” to prevent remote VNC clients connecting except when
# doing so through a secure tunnel. See the “-via” option in the
# ‘man vncviewer’ manual page.

# VNCSERVERS=”2:myusername”
# VNCSERVERARGS[2]=”-geometry 800×600 -nolisten tcp -nohttpd -localhost”
VNCSERVERS=”1:root”
EOF
}

check_selinux_config()
{
if grep “SELINUX=enforcing” $selinux_config >/dev/null 2>&1
then
sed -i ‘s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/’ $selinux_config
fi
}

centos5_install_vnc_server()
{
if [ “$1” == “redhat5” ]
then
if rpm -qa|grep redhat-logos >/dev/null 2>&1
then
yum remove $(rpm -qa|grep redhat-logos) -y
fi
fi
if yum grouplist “GNOME Desktop Environment”|grep “Available” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum groupinstall “GNOME Desktop Environment” -y
then
exit_script “GNOME Desktop Environment”
fi
fi
if ! rpm -q vnc-server >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum install vnc-server -y
then
exit_script vnc-server
fi
vncserver <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
else
vncpasswd <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
fi
vncserver -kill :1
service vncserver stop
service pcscd stop
chkconfig –del pcscd
yum remove esc -y
rhel5_vnc_config
chmod 755 $vnc_xstartup_config
chkconfig –level 345 vncserver on
service NetworkManager stop
chkconfig –del NetworkManager
check_selinux_config
sleep 20
service vncserver start
}

centos6_install_vnc_server()
{
if yum grouplist “X Window System”|grep “Available” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum groupinstall “X Window System” -y
then
exit_script “X Window System”
fi
fi
if yum grouplist “Desktop”|grep “Available” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum groupinstall “Desktop” -y
then
exit_script Desktop
fi
fi
if yum grouplist “Chinese Support”|grep “Available” >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum groupinstall “Chinese Support” -y
then
exit_script “Chinese Support”
fi
fi
if ! rpm -q tigervnc-server >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! yum install tigervnc-server -y
then
exit_script tigervnc-server
fi
vncserver <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
else
vncpasswd <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
fi
vncserver -kill :1
service vncserver stop
service pcscd stop
chkconfig –del pcscd
yum remove esc -y
sed -i ‘s/.*!= root.*/#&/’ /etc/pam.d/gdm
dbus-uuidgen >/var/lib/dbus/machine-id
rhel5_vnc_config
chmod 755 $vnc_xstartup_config
chkconfig –level 345 vncserver on
service NetworkManager stop
chkconfig –del NetworkManager
sleep 20
service vncserver start
check_selinux_config
}

centos7_install_vnc_server()
{
if ! yum groupinstall “GNOME Desktop” “Graphical Administration Tools” -y
then
exit_script “NOME Desktop Graphical Administration Tools”
fi
if ! yum install tigervnc-server -y
then
exit_script “tigervnc-server”
fi
cp /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@.service /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@\:1.service
sed -i ‘s/%i/:1/g’ /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@\:1.service
sed -i ‘s/<USER>/root/g’ /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@\:1.service
sed -i ‘s/home\/root/root/g’ /lib/systemd/system/vncserver@\:1.service
vncpasswd <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
systemctl enable vncserver@:1.service
systemctl start vncserver@:1.service
systemctl status vncserver@:1.service
systemctl disable initial-setup-text.service
}

ubuntu_install_vnc_server()
{
if ! dpkg -s lxde >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! apt-get install lxde -y –force-yes –fix-missing
then
exit_script lxde
fi
fi
if ! dpkg -s ttf-arphic-uming >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! apt-get install ttf-arphic-uming -y –force-yes –fix-missing
then
exit_script ttf-arphic-uming
fi
fi
if ! dpkg -s vnc4server >/dev/null 2>&1
then
if ! apt-get install vnc4server -y –force-yes –fix-missing
then
exit_script vnc4server
fi
vncserver <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
else
vncpasswd <<EOF
$password
$password
EOF
fi
vncserver -kill :1
sed -i ‘s/x-window-manager \&/startlxde \&/’ $vnc_xstartup_config
sed -i ‘/vncserver/d’ $rc_local
sed -i ‘s/^exit 0$/su root \-c “\/usr\/bin\/vncserver \-name my-vnc-server \-geometry 1280×800 \:1″\nexit 0/’ $rc_local
sleep 5
vncserver
}
####################Start###################
#check lock file ,one time only let the script run one time
LOCKfile=/tmp/.$(basename $0)
if [ -f “$LOCKfile” ]
then
echo -e “\033[1;40;31mThe script is already exist,please next time to run this script.\n\033[0m”
exit
else
echo -e “\033[40;32mStep 1.No lock file,begin to create lock file and continue.\n\033[40;37m”
touch $LOCKfile
fi

#check user
if [ $(id -u) != “0” ]
then
echo -e “\033[1;40;31mError: You must be root to run this script, please use root to install this script.\n\033[0m”
rm -f $LOCKfile
exit 1
fi

vnc_xstartup_config=/root/.vnc/xstartup
vnc_sysconfig_vncservers=/etc/sysconfig/vncservers
selinux_config=/etc/selinux/config
rc_local=/etc/rc.local
password=$(cat /dev/urandom | head -1 | md5sum | head -c 6)

echo -e “\033[40;32mStep 2.Begen to check the OS issue.\n\033[40;37m”
os_release=$(check_os_release)
if [ “X$os_release” == “X” ]
then
echo -e “\033[1;40;31mThe OS does not identify,So this script is not executede.\n\033[0m”
rm -f $LOCKfile
exit 0
else
echo -e “\033[40;32mThis OS is $os_release.\n\033[40;37m”
fi

echo -e “\033[40;32mStep 3.Begen to modify the source configration file and update.\n\033[40;37m”
update_source

echo -e “\033[40;32mStep 4.Begen to check and install vnc server.\n\033[40;37m”
case “$os_release” in
redhat5|centos5|aliyun5)
centos5_install_vnc_server $os_release
;;
redhat6|centos6|aliyun6)
centos6_install_vnc_server
;;
centos7)
centos7_install_vnc_server
;;
ubuntu10|ubuntu1204|ubuntu1210|debian6)
ubuntu_install_vnc_server
;;
esac

echo -e “\033[40;32mInstall success.The vnc password is \”$password\”,this script now exit!\n\033[40;37m”
rm -f $LOCKfile

http://oss.aliyuncs.com/aliyunecs/install_vnc_server.tgz

centos6系列安装完毕后第一次登陆会提示如下信息:

勾上图中红色选项,然后选择close关闭即可。Ubuntu和debian安装时会提示如下:

选择USA并使用键盘的”Tab”键选择OK关闭即可。

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