医学英语构词法(二)

Emphysema (COPD)-
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, of which emphysema is one of, results in progressive destruction of the air sacs in the lungs and loss of respiratory membrane for oxygen exchange. The bane of long term smokers.

Atelectasis-
a collapsed lung. Literally, “an imperfect expansion” in Greek.

Pulmonologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the lungs. Patients needing surgery are referred to a general surgeon.

Respiratory Therapist-
a specially trained technician who administers, among other treatments, inhalation therapy to patients with lung disease.

Pulmonary angiography-
special X-rays of the vessels of the lungs.

Laryngoscopy-
visual examination of the larynx.

Endotracheal intubation-
passing a special air-tube into the trachea so oxygen can be reliably supplied directly to the lungs without risk of inhaling vomit from the stomach. Typically done for surgery or whenever general anesthesia is administered among other situations where the patient’s airway must be secured.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Gastr/o Stomach
eg:Gastritis, Gastrectomy

Chol/e
Gall, bile
eg:Cholecystitis, cholecystectomy (inflammation of, removal of gallbladder)

Cyst/o
Bladder, sac
eg:(see above)

Emes/o
Vomit
eg:Emesis (vomiting), emetic (stimulating vomiting), antiemetic (stopping vomiting)

Lith/o
Stone
eg:Cholelithotomy (removal of gall stones)

Lapar/o
Abdominal wall
eg:Laparotomy (cutting into the abdomen)

-centesis
To puncture
eg:Abdominocentesis (puncturing and draining)

-tripsy
To crush
eg:Cholelithotripsy (smashing gall stones with sound waves)

-rrhea
Flow, discharge
eg:Diarrhea

-iasis
(-osis)
Abnormal condition
Cholelithiasis (presence of gall stones causing symptoms)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)-
Severe “heartburn” in laymen’s language. Weakness of the valve between the esophagus and stomach may allow stomach acid to reflux (regurgitate, backup) into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. This results in chest pain which can mimic that of angina (pain of cardiac ischemia or an MI).

Jaundice-
Literally means “yellow” in French. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products from the blood into body tissues. May result from blockage of the ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood
cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed RBC’ s is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions.

Diverticulosis/diverticulitis-
Small pouches may form along the walls of the large intestine called diverticuli which if symptomatic, causing discomfort to the patient, is called diverticulosis. These abnormal outpocketings may collect and not be able to empty fecal material which can lead to inflammation, diverticulitis.

Cirrhosis-
Literally, “orange-yellow” in Greek. A degenerative disease of the liver that often develops in chronic alcoholics, but can have other causes. The name refers to the gross appearance of the organ.

Dysphagia-
Difficulty swallowing. May be related to GERD (see above), esophageal tumor or other causes.

Gastroenterologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the digestive system including esophagus, stomach and intestines. These specialists do not do surgery. Patients needing surgery are referred to a general surgeon.

Proctologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the rectum and anus.

Liver scan-
Injecting a radioactive element into the blood stream that can image tumors in the liver. The radioactivity is very low and detectable only with an instrument more sophisticated than the old Geiger counter.

Guaiac Test (Hemoccult, Fecult)-
a special chemical test to identify blood in the stool (feces). Blood in the stool may have many causes including cancer and hemorrhoids.

Upper GI series-
a series of X-rays of the esophagus and stomach and small intestines having the patient swallow a “milkshake” of barium. The element barium is opaque, i.e. blocks , X-rays. This procedure may be used to identify problems with swallowing, stomach ulcers, twisting of the small intestines.

Lower GI series-
a series of X-rays using a barium enema to show the large intestine and rectum. This procedure can be used to identify problems such as diverticulitis/diverticulosis, and tumors.

Endoscopy-
use of a flexible fiberoptic instrument attached to a video camera that can be used to directly visualize the esophagus, stomach and large bowel. Special names may be used for each area explored such as colonoscopy.

Ultrasonography (ultrasound)-
a procedure using high frequency sound waves to visualize internal organs. Primarily used to visualize abdominal and pelvic organs, such as the pregnant uterus.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Cephal/o
Head
eg:Cephalgia (a headache)

Encephal/o
Inside the head (brain)
eg:Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
Anencephalic (born without a brain)

Mening/o
Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
eg:Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes)

Myel/o
Spinal cord
eg:Myelogram (X-ray of the spinal cord)

Neur/o
Nerve
eg:Neuroma (tumor)
Neuritis (inflammation)

Dys
Difficult, painful, abnormal
eg:Dyslexia (difficulty reading)

-cele
Hernia, abnormal protrusion of structure out of normal anatomical position
eg:Meningomyelocele (protrusion of membranes and spinal cord)

-pathy
Disease, abnormality
eg:Encephalopathy (disease of the brain)
Neuropathy (disease of the nerves)

-plasia
Development, formation, growth
eg:Aplasia (no development)
Hyperplasia (over development)

-plegia
Paralysis
eg:Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body)
Quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs)

Multiple Sclerosis-
Literally, “many hardenings”, MS is a disease of unknown cause that manifests as multiple hard plaques of degeneration of the insulating layer of nerve fibers in the central nervous system. The loss of insulation allows “short circuiting” of nerve impulses. Depending upon where the degeneration occurs, patients may suffer paralysis, sensory disturbances or blindness.

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)-
the fancy name for a “stroke”. A blood vessel in the brain may burst causing internal bleeding. Or, a clot may arise in a brain blood vessel (a thrombus), or arise elsewhere (embolus) and travel to get stuck in a brain vessel which then deprives brain tissue of oxygen. Depending upon the area of the brain involved, the patient may suffer paralysis, loss of speech or loss of vision.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)-
“Ischemia” was introduced previously in the circulatory diseases module referring to the heart. It literally means “not quite enough blood”. A short period of insufficient blood supply to the brain can have the same signs and symptoms as a stroke such as weakness in an arm, a partial loss of vision, but the problem lasts less than 24 hours. People who get TIA’s are at increased risk of having a stroke in the future.

Epilepsy-
a Greek word for “seizure”. Convulsions is another term used. Seizures may have many causes and not all seizures are epilepsy. High fevers in young children may trigger seizures which are short in duration, easily controlled and, typically, have no permanent aftereffects. Epilepsy is a specific condition which may occur at any age, seizures are more intense, longer lasting in duration, and recur with some frequency. The condition may be controlled with medication, or if unresponsive to drugs, may require surgery.

Neurologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. He/she may refer a patient to a neurosurgeon. Neurologists do not do surgery.

Lumbar (spinal) puncture or tap (LP)-
introducing a needle between the lower bony vertebrae of our spinal column allows a physician to sample the fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Lab tests on the fluid are used for diagnostic purposes such as presence of bacteria in meningitis, special proteins in multiple sclerosis, or blood cells.

Brain scan-
introducing a radioactive element into the blood can image possible tumors in the brain. The radioactive dose is very low and detectable only with special, very sensitive instruments that are much more sophisticated than the old Geiger counters.

Electroencephalography (EEG)-
Wow, what a mouthful, but take it apart. Starting at the end of the word: an image (in this case a written recording) of the brain’s electrical activity. EEG’s are used to diagnose different types of seizure disorders such as epilepsy, brain tumors, and are used in sleep research to identify stages of sleep.

Computed tomography (CT)-
a specialized X-ray machine that takes multiple images of a body area from different angles and has a computer that integrates the multiple images into “slices” of the body. The resolution is much better than standard X-rays, lower X-ray doses are used, and there is better differentiation of types of tissue (bone, air, solid organ).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-
Although the image produces the “slices” through the body seen by CT (see above), no X-rays are involved. The patient’s body is placed in a strong magnetic field. Radio pulses affect the resonance or “spin” of atoms in the tissues. A computer analyzes this information to show subtle differences in tissue molecular structure producing very high resolution and better differentiation of soft tissue, such as a tumor within the liver.

URINARY SYSTEM

Nephr/o, ren/o
Kidney
eg: Nephritis, renal artery

Hydro/o
Water
eg: Hydronephrosis (abnormal condition involving back up of urine into the kidney

Cyst/o
Bladder
eg: Cystitis, cystectomy (inflammation of , removal of bladder)

Pyel/o
Renal collecting ducts
eg: Pyelogram (X-ray of the collecting ducts)

Ur/o, -uria
Urine
Polyuria, anuria (frequent urination, no urine formation)

Olig/o
Scanty, less than normal
eg: Oliguria (reduced urine formation)

-pexy
To surgically reattach, fix in normal position

eg: Nephropexy (surgically attach kidney in normal anatomical position)

Nephrosis-
a noninflammatory disease of kidneys.

Nephrolith-
a kidney stone.

Urethritis-
inflammation of the urethra, the final pathway for urine in both sexes, and the common pathway for urine and semen in the male.

Nocturia-
frequently getting up and urinating during the night.

Enuresis-
involuntary release of urine, most often in reference to “bedwetting”.

Nephrologist-
I am hoping by now, you would know this is a physician specializing in kidney diseases.

Urologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the lower urinary tract, that is, the bladder and urethra. Also, urology is the profession that takes care of problems of the male reproductive system, sort of the male equivalent of a gynecologist.

Cystoscopy-
looking into the urinary bladder with a fiberoptic instrument.

Intravenous pyelogram-
special X-rays showing the drainage pattern of the kidneys. A dye opaque to X-rays is injected into a vein. After a waiting period for the blood and dye to pass through the kidneys, X-rays can be taken of the collecting system of the kidney, ureter and bladder.

Retrograde pyelogram-
personally, I prefer the former procedure! In this procedure a dye opaque to X-rays is flushed backwards up the urethra and bladder and up the ureters to the kidneys.

Voiding cystourethrogram-
take this apart starting at the end of the word: an imaging technique (X-ray) displaying the urethra and bladder while urinating! How did the opaque dye get into the bladder? One guess then see retrograde pyelogram above.

Dialysis-
a procedure for cleansing the blood of waste products in individuals with complete kidney failure or who have had kidneys removed by surgery. With the in-hospital procedure, the patient’s blood is circulated through a machine that removes waste products. The blood is recirculated back into the patient.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Hyster/o, metr/o
Uterus
eg: Hysterectomy, endometritis (inflammation of the lining of uterus)

Salping/o, -salpinx
Uterine tube
eg: Salpingitis, hematosalpinx (blood in the uterine tube)

Colp/o
Vagina
eg: Colporrhaphy (suturing a tear), colpoplasty (surgical reconstruction), colposcopy (viewing the interior)

Oophor/o
Ovary
eg: Oophorectomy, oophoropexy (surgery fixation, reattachment)

Men/o
Menstruation
eg: Menarche (first), dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation)

Mamm/o, mast/o
Breast
eg: Mammogram, mastectomy

-pareunia, coitus
Intercourse
eg: Dyspareunia (painful intercourse), precoital, postcoital (before and after intercourse)

Endometriosis-
a condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. Endometrium is the lining layer of the uterus which sloughs off with each menstruation. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdomen (peritoneal cavity), the clots of endometrial tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, intestinal loops and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones. Bleeding into the abdomen irritates the lining membrane, the peritoneum, and causes abdominal pain.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)-
although males have a closed abdominal cavity, the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. Although there are many potential causes of PID, gonorrheal infection is one of them. Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.

Prolapsed uterus-
the uterus is almost directly above the vagina. In fact, the cervix, the neck region, of the uterus extends into the upper vagina. Ligaments hold the uterus in proper position so that it does not prolapse or herniate into the vagina. Severe prolapse can result in the uterine cervix protruding from the vaginal opening. Surgical repair is typically required to restore the uterus to its proper anatomical position.

Obstetrician-
literally “midwife” in Latin. A physician specializing in the diagnosis and management of pregnancy and delivering babies.

Gynecologist-
a physician specializing in diseases of the female reproductive system and surgery of this area. Most physicians currently specialize in combined practice of OB/GYN.

Episiotomy-
a surgical procedure cutting into the perineal area, the area between the vagina and anus in order to prevent tearing of tissues when the baby’s head traverses the vaginal opening.

Hysterosalpingogram-
special X-rays of the uterus and uterine tubes involving passing an opaque dye backwards up through the uterus to determine if the tubes are patent. Since the tubes are open into the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity, if patent, dye should spill out of the end of the tubes and be manifest on the X-ray.

Colposcopy-
using a magnifying instrument to inspect the interior of the vagina and cervix, the entrance to the uterus.

Dilatation and curettage (D &C)-
dilating the cervix, the entrance into the uterus, and passing instruments that enable scrapping off superficial layers of the endometrium. May be done as an early therapeutic abortion, or following a normal pregnancy to remove residual tissue remaining in the uterus, or may be done as a diagnostic procedure to examine lining tissue of the uterus.

Mammoplasty-
Surgical reconstruction of the breast may involve breast enlargement or reduction or cosmetic reconstruction after mastectomy. What are the odds of a normal, healthy woman developing breast cancer over her lifetime? 1:100,000? 1:100?

terms for pregnancy___

-gravida
Pregnancy
Nulligravida (never pregnant), primigravida (first-time pregnant), multigravida (many pregnancies)

-para
Live birth
Nullipara (no live births), multipara (many live births)

Part/o, toc/o
Labor/birth/delivery
Prepartum, postpartum (before and after delivery), dystocia (difficult delivery)

REPRODUCTIVE – MALE SYSTEM

Orchid/o, test/o
Testes (male gonad)
eg: Orchiditis, orchidectomy, testicular artery, testosterone (male sex hormone)

Balan/o
Head of the penis
eg: Balanitis

Andr/o
Male
eg: Androgenic (stimulating maleness), androgynous (characteristics of male and female appearance)

Prostat/o
Prostate
eg: Prostatitis, prostatectomy

Vas/o
Vessel, duct
eg: Vas deferens, vasectomy (duct carrying semen from testes, cutting the duct)

-rrhaphy
To suture
eg: Herniorrhaphy (surgical correction of inguinal hernia)

GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY
IS ALIVE AND WELL!

TERM
DEscriptION
GOD/GODDESS

Hymen
Membrane surrounding entrance of vagina
eg: Hymen- the Greek god of marriage

Aphrodisiac
A chemical purported to stimulate sexual desire
eg: Aphrodite- The Greek goddess of love

Venereal disease
A sexually transmitted infectious disease
eg: Venus- the Roman goddess of love

Hermaphroditism
A condition where both ovarian and testicular tissue are found in the same individual
eg: Hermaphroditus- the offspring of Hermes and Aphrodite who looked female but had male genitalia

Priapism
A continuous, painful erection
eg: Priapus- the Roman god of male potency

Hypospadias-
literally “below the fleshy spike”. A condition in which the external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip.

Hydrocele-
a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis. Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum. May cause discomfort. Can be surgically corrected. And, who would most likely be doing the surgery? A urologist!

Varicocele-
dilated and twisted veins of the testis, sort of “hemorrhoids” of the scrotum! Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum which may look and feel like a “bag of worms”. May be surgically corrected if causing discomfort. This condition may also cause reduced sperm count and male sterility due to sluggish blood flow elevating testicular temperature.

Cryptorchidism-
literally “hidden testicle”. A condition of lack of descent of one or both testes into the scrotum. If not corrected, usually by surgery, before puberty, can lead to sterility and increased risk of testicular cancer.

Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)-
swelling of the prostate gland which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra causing difficulty urinating, dribbling, and nocturia (remember that word? See urinary system). The bane of old men! BPH becomes more common as men age.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)-
the surgical cure for BPH. An instrument inserted through the penile urethra is used to partially cut away the prostate to relieve obstruction of the urinary tract.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)-
PSA is a marker protein for prostate cell secretions which can be detected with a lab test. A rising PSA may be an early sign of prostate cancer, although there may be other causes including false positive tests. How often should men get a PSA test?

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Oste/o
Bone
eg: Osteitis, osteoma, osteocyte

Chondr/o
Cartilage
eg: Chondritis, chondroma, chondrocyte

Arthr/o
Joint
eg: Arthritis, arthroplasty

Myel/o
Bone marrow
eg: Myeloma

Ten/o, tendin/o
Tendon (binds muscle to bone)
eg: Tendonitis, tenorrhaphy

Ligament/o
Ligament (binds bone to bone)
eg: Ligamentous injury

Burs/o
Bursa, “bag”, (shock absorber between tendons and bones)
eg: Bursitis

My/o, myos/o
Muscle
eg: Myoma, myositis

-malacia
Softening
eg: Osteomalacia, chondromalacia

-porosis
Porous
eg: Osteoporosis

-asthenia
Weakness, loss of strength
eg: Myasthenia gravis

-trophy
Development, stimulation, maintenance
eg: Atrophy (shriveling of muscles), hypertrophy (increase in size and strength of muscles)

-algia, algesia
Pain
eg: Myalgia, arthralgia, analgesia (take away pain

Arthritis-
As we age, our joint tissues become less resilient to wear and tear and start to degenerate manifesting as swelling, pain, and oftentimes, loss of mobility of joints. Changes occur in both joint soft tissues and the opposing bones, a condition called osteoarthritis. A more serious form of disease is called rheumatoid arthritis. The latter is an autoimmune disease wherein the body produces antibodies against joint tissues causing chronic inflammation resulting in severe joint damage, pain and immobility.

Osteoporosis-
“Porous bone”. The bane of the old, especially, women. The hard, rock-like quality of bone is dependent upon calcium. When too much calcium is dissolved from bones or not enough replaced, bones lose density and are easily fractured. Estrogen, the female sex hormone, helps maintain proper calcium levels in bones. Once the ovaries stop producing the hormone, women are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. A collapse of bony vertebrae of the spinal column results in loss of height and stooped posture. Hip fractures are a common occurrence.

Osteomalacia-
“Soft bones”. If not enough calcium is deposited during early childhood development, the bones do not become rock-hard, but rubbery. Both adequate calcium in the diet and vitamin D, primarily, from normal sunlight exposure or supplementation, are necessary for normal bone development. Before vitamin supplementation to milk, “rickets”, another name for osteomalacia in children, was common resulting in the classic bowed legs of the afflicted child.

Carpal tunnel syndrome-
People whose job involves repeated flexing of their wrist (typing, house painting) may develop tingling and/or pain in their thumb, index and middle fingers along with weakness of movements of the thumb, especially, grasping an object. The main nerve for finely controlled thumb movements passes through a bony/ligamentous canal on the bottom of the wrist. Repetitive flexing movements may inflame and thicken the ligament over the “tunnel” through the carpal (wrist) bones trapping and compressing the nerve.

Tendonitis-
Repeated strain on a tendon, attachment of a muscle to bone, can inflame the tendon resulting in pain and difficulty with movement involving the muscle. Tendons have a poor blood supply; therefore, they typically take a long time to heal on the order of six weeks or more.

Rotator cuff tear-
Muscles surrounding the shoulder joint are involved in rotating the shoulder with upper arm and hand forward and backward, among other movements. The tendons of these muscles also contribute to the structural strength of the shoulder joint. Hard, fast movements, such as in tennis and baseball can tear one of these tendons resulting in pain and decreased mobility of the shoulder. Surgery may be needed to repair a torn tendon.

Bursitis-
A bursa is a small, closed bag with a minimum amount of lubricatory fluid that serves as a shock absorber where bones make close contact and to minimize trauma and friction where tendons cross bones and joints. Inflammation leads to pain and immobility in a joint area.

Muscular dystrophy-
This inherited disease leads to degeneration and weakness of muscles manifesting at birth. The prefix, dys-, means abnormal. The root, -trophy, refers to maintaining normal nourishment, structure and function. This condition may be recognized very early as “floppy baby syndrome”. The baby has difficulty holding its head up and has general muscle weakness. Later, the child is delayed in achieving motor milestones such as crawling, standing up, walking.

Myasthenia gravis-
“Muscular weakness, profound”. This is an autoimmune disease that involves production of antibodies that interfere with nerves stimulating muscle contractions. Face and neck muscles are the most obviously affected, manifesting as drooping eyelids, double vision, difficulty swallowing and general fatigue. There is no actual paralysis of muscles involved, but a rapid fatiguing of function.

Lupus erythematosus-
An autoimmune disease wherein the body produces antibodies against a variety of organs, especially connective tissues of skin and joints. Mild Lupus may involve a distinctive butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks. Mild lupus may also involve myalgia and arthralgia (remember these words?) Severe or systemic lupus (SLE) involves inflammation of multiple organ systems such as the heart, lungs, or kidneys. By the way, lupus means “wolf” in Latin. Maybe a reference to the facial rash that might give a patient a wolf-like appearance.

Orthopaedist-
“To straighten up children” Orthopaedics is a surgical subspecialty that in the past devoted much of its time to treating musculoskeletal deformities in children. Now with improved prenatal diagnosis and better nutrition, orthopaedists still treat children with spine and limb deformities but also adults with complicated bone fractures, damaged tendons or ligaments, or needing surgery to replace a damaged hip or knee joint.

Rheumatologist-
“To study the flux of fluids”. Say, what? Rheuma is an old medical term for a watery discharge. Among other diseases, Rheumatologists treat joint diseases such as the various forms of arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis. Inflamed joints accumulate “fluid” and swell among other signs and symptoms. This medical subspecialty also evaluates and treats osteoporosis, tendonitis, gout, and lupus among many other chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders.

Osteopath/Osteopathic Physician (D.O.)-
The name sounds like a specialty limited to bone disease, but actually, Osteopathic physicians are one of two arms of the medical profession that differ in history and philosophy. At one time there were many kinds of medical schools originating from various philosophies; allopathic, osteopathic, homeopathic. Osteopathy originated in the 1890’s in response to despair at the lack of effectiveness of many forms of then primitive treatments. Osteopathy developed an emphasis on the influence of the musculoskeletal system and its interrelationship to other body systems. D.O.’s make use of osteopathic manipulation (bones, ligaments, joints) along with medication, surgery and all other medical treatments used by M.D. physicians. Also, preventive care has always been a major emphasis of osteopathic care. M.D.’s and D.O.’s are licensed by all state medical boards.

Physical Therapist-
Although not a physician, this health care professional typically has at least two years of specialized training beyond a college degree. PT’s are rehabilitation specialists treating a multitude of medical problems including patients recovering from joint surgery, limb amputation, a stroke, heart attack, and suffering with chronic neuromuscular diseases.

Arthroscopy-
A fiberoptic instrument is introduced into a joint cavity in order to visualize surfaces of bones entering into a joint, find tears in internal joint structures and evaluate sources of inflammation.

Bone scan-
A radioactive element in very small amounts, not enough to cause any radiation injury to the patient, is introduced into the blood stream. The specially selected element accumulates in bone and using a much more sophisticated version of the old Geiger Counter instrument, the distribution of the element is used to diagnose potential bone tumors among other bone pathologies.

Electromyography-
A big, scary word! But, you are experienced by now in taking them apart. I like to start at the end and work backward: “a recording of muscle electrical activity”. Fine needles are introduced into muscles in order to make recordings of contractile activity. This procedure is useful in evaluating causes of paralysis, diagnosing muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders.

Muscle biopsy-
Cutting out a small tissue sample of muscle in order to examine it under a microscope. This procedure can be useful in diagnosing muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders.

表示动物不同器官和组织的词素

1 cephal,capit,cran 头,头颅
2 cyte 细胞
3 carn,my,mya,myo,肉,肌肉
4 haem,haemat,hem,aem,sangul 血
5 soma,corp 体,身体
6 some,plast 体,颗粒
7 hepa,hepat 肝 heparin 肝素 hepatopancreas肝胰腺 hepatocyte 肝细胞 hepatoma肝癌
8 ren,nephr 肾adrnal肾上腺的 nephridia肾管 nephron肾单位
9 card,cord 心 cardiotoxin 心脏毒素 cardiovascular center 心血管中枢 electrocardiogram心电图 concord一致,和谐
10 ophthalm,ocell,ocul 眼 ophthalmology眼科学 ophthalmia眼炎 ophthalmologist眼科专家
11 branchi 鳃 filibranch丝鳃 lamellibrnch瓣鳃 sencondary branchium次生鳃
12 brac ,brachi 腕,手臂 brachiolaria 短腕幼虫brachionectin臂粘连蛋白 bracelet手镯
13 dent,odont 牙齿 dentin牙质 odontphora 齿舌 odontoblast成牙质细胞
14 plum羽 plumatus 羽状的 plumule绒毛 plumage (鸟的)羽毛
15 foli,foil 叶 follicle滤泡 foiling叶形 foliage 叶子 foliose 多叶的

Stomato= mouth *stomatitis
Dento= teeth /dentist
Glosso/linguo= tongue /glossitis, lingual nerve
Gingivo= gums /gingivitis
Encephalo= brain /encephalitis
Gastro= stomach /gastritis
Entero= intestine /gastroenteritis
Colo= large intestine /colitis, megacolon
Procto= anus/rectum /proctitis, proctologist
Hepato= liver /hepatitis, hepatomegaly
Nephro/rene= kidney /nephrosis, renal artery
Orchido= testis /orchiditis, orchidectomy
Oophoro= ovary /oophorectomy
Hystero/metro=uterus /hysterectomy, endometritis
Salpingo= uterine tubes /hystosalpingogram
Dermo= skin /dermatitis
Masto/mammo= breast /mammography, mastectomy
Osteo= bones /osteoporosis
Cardio= heart /electrocardiogram (ECG)
Cysto= bladder /cystitis
Rhino= nose /rhinitis (runny nose!)
Phlebo/veno= veins /phlebitis, phlebotomy
Pneumo/pulmo= lung /pneumonitis, pulmonologist
Hemo/emia= blood /hematologist, anemia

Root Words for Body Parts and Organs

combining form
meaning

Crani/o
cranium, skull

Ot/o
ear

pharyng/o
pharynx

esophag/o
esophagus

bronch/o
bronchus

derm(at)/o
skin

mamm/o
breast or mast

hepa(t)/o
liver

cholecyst/o
gallbladder under liver

duoden/o
duodenum

ile/o
ileum

append(ic)
appendix

rect/o
rectum

proct/o
rectum

an/o
anus

ophthalm/o
eye

gingiv/o
gums

dent/o
teeth

laryng/o
larynx

trache/o
trachea

pneumo(no)
lung

pulmon
lung

gastr/o
stomach

col/o
colon

enter/o
small intestine

salping/o
fallopian tube

sigmoid/o
part of colon

hyster/o
uterus

metro
uterus

cervic/o
cervix, neck of uterus

colp/o
vagina

Cerebr/o
cerebrum

Encephal/o
brain

Cephal/o
head

Neur/o
nerve

Myel/o
spinal cord

Phleb/o
vein

Rhin/o
nose

Stomat/o
mouth

Lingua
tongue

Gloss/o
tongue

My/o
muscle

Arteri/o
artery

cardi/o
heart

Splen/o
spleen

Cost/o
rib

Pancreat/o
pancreas

Chondr/o
cartilage

Nephr/o
kidney

Thorac/o
chest

Renal
kidney

Steth/o
chest

Ten(d)(in)/o
tendon

Pyel/o
pelvis of kidney

Spondyl/o
vertebral

Lapar/o
abdomen

Ureter/o
ureter

Abdomin/o
abdomen

Cyst/o
bladder

Sacr/o
sacrum

Prostat/o
prostate

Arthr/o
joint

Oste/o
bone

Orchi/o
testes

cancer_terms

oncologist (cancer specialist).
oncology (study of tumors)
metastasize (travel to other areas of the body to form new tumors).
Radiosensitive- cancer degenerates in response to radiation
Radioresistant- cancer slow to respond or may not respond at all
Fractionation- repeated low doses that allow a higher total dose
Cryosurgery- destroying malignant tissue by freezing it with a cold probe. Often used for soft tissues like the liver.
Fulguration- “Lightning” in Latin. Malignant tissue destroyed with an electrocautery instrument (electric current).
Excisional biopsy- removal of tumor and a safe margin of normal tissue. Can be curative for many cancers if done before metastases.
En bloc resection- removal of tumor and large amount of surrounding tissue including positive lymph nodes.

Adding ?oma (a swelling) to organ and tissue word roots names tumors. Not all tumors are malignant (cancerous). Many are benign (not life-threatening).

Adeneg\o = gland eg:adenoma
Lipeg\o = fat eg:lipoma
Myeg\o = muscle eg:myoma
Lympheg\o = lymph tissue eg:lymphoma
Carcineg\o = malignant eg:carcinoma
Osteoeg\o = bone eg:osteoma

CANCER BUZZ WORDS

GOOD NEWS / NEWS
Benign/ Malignant

Low grade/ High grade

Radiosensitive/ Radioresistant

No metastases/ metastases

Well differentiated/ Poorly differentiated

Negative nodes/ Positive nodes

In remission/ Relapse

Surgically resectable/ Inoperable

oncologist (cancer specialist).
oncology (study of tumors)表示颜色的词素

1 chrom颜色
chromophore生色团 chromosome染色体 chromatography色谱法
2 melan,melano,nigr 黑
melanoma黑素瘤melanin黑色素melanophore黑色素细胞
3 xantho,flavo,fla,flavi,lute黄
xanthophyl叶黄素 xanthous黄色的,黄色人种xathine黄嘌呤 flavin(e)黄素flavone黄酮 letein黄体素,叶黄素flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD)黄素腺嘌呤二核苷酸
4 erythro, rub, rubrm, ruf,红
erythrocyte红细胞erythromycin红霉素erythropoitin(EPO)促红细胞生成素
5 chloro,chlor绿,氯
chlorophyll叶绿素 chloride氯化物chloramphenicol氯霉素
6 cyan,cyano 蓝,青紫色,氰
cyanophyceae 蓝藻纲 cyanobacteria蓝细菌cyanide氰化物
7 aur,glid,chrys金色
aureomycin金霉素chrysose 金藻淀粉 chrysanthemum菊花 glidstone 金沙石 glid 镀金
8 leu,leuco,leuk,leuko,blan,alb无色,白色
leucine亮氨酸 leukaemia=leucosis白血病bleaching powder漂白粉 albomycin白霉素

Technicolor Terms

Leuk/o
= white
leukemia (overabundance of white blood cells)

melan/o
= black
melanoma (black tumor of the skin)

cyan/o
= blue
cyanosis (blueness may be due to cold or not enough oxygen in blood)

xanth/o
= yellow
xanthoma (yellow tumor)

acu == sharp acute 敏锐的;尖锐的 acumem 敏锐;聪明 acupuncture 针灸
alti == high altitude 高度 altimeter 高度计 exalt 提高;提升
ambula == walk ambulance 救护车 ambulant 流动的 ambulate 行走、移动
ann == year anniversary 周年纪念 annual 每年的 annals 编年史
anthro == man anthropoid 似人类的;类人猿 anthropology 人类学 anthroposociology 人类社会学
arch == ruler monarch君主 anarchism 无政府主义 patriarch 家长、族长
aster/astr == star astrology 占星术 astronomy 天文学 asterisk 星号,星标
audi == hearing audience 听众 audible 听得见的 audiphone 助听器
auto == self automation 自动化 autobiography 自传 autosuggestion 自我暗示

acantho ==棘,刺
acetabulo ==髋臼
acouo ==听觉
acro ==顶,肢
acromio ==肩峰
adeno ==腺
adipo ==脂肪的
adreno ==肾上腺
aero ==气
agglutino ==凝集
albo 前缀白
algesi ==痛觉的感受
alveolo ==肺泡
alveolo ==牙槽
amnio ==羊膜
ampullo ==壶腹
amylo ==淀粉
andro ==雄
aneurysmo ==异常扩大
angino ==阻塞
ankylo ==弯曲
ano ==肛门
aorto ==主动脉
apico ==顶
appendico ==阑尾
appendo ==阑尾
aquo ==水
arterio ==动脉
arteriolo ==小动脉
arthro ==关节
articulo ==关节
astro ==星
atelo ==不完全的,有缺陷的
athero ==脂肪堆积
atrio ==腔
audio ==听觉
auro ==耳
auro ==金
axio ==轴
bio == life biology 生物学 biography 传记 biocide 杀虫剂
brevi == short brief 简短的 brevity 简洁 abbreviate 缩写

balano ==龟头
baso ==碱
bili ==胆汁
blenno ==粘液
blepharo ==睑
brachy ==短
bronchio ==支气管
bronchiolo ==细支气管
broncho ==支气管
bucco ==颊
bulbo ==球部
burso ==滑液囊capit == head capital 首都 decapitate 斩首 capitation 人头税;按人收费
ced == go;move recede 后退;引退 unprecedented 史无前例的 precede 先行,居先
cess == go;move access 通路 process 进展
chron == time chronology 年表,年代学 chronic 慢性的 synchronal 同步的,同时发生的
cide == kill;cut suicide 自杀 insecticide 杀虫剂 bactericide 杀菌剂
confid == trust confidential 机密的 confide 吐露(秘密)
cord == heart accordance 一致,调和 concord 协调,同意 discord 不和,不一致
cred == trust;belief credit 信用;信任 incredible 难以置信的 credulous 轻信的
cur == run;move current 潮流 excurse远足,旅行 incursion 入侵,进入
cycl == circle;wheel bicycle 自行车 tricycle 三轮车 hemicycle 半圆的

caco ==坏
calcaneo ==跟骨
calci ==钙
capillo ==非常小的血管
carcino ==癌
cardio ==心
carpo ==腕
cautero ==燃烧
ceco ==盲肠
celio ==腹
cemento ==牙骨质
cerebello ==小脑
cerebro ==大脑
cerumino ==耵聍
cervico ==颈
cervico ==颈,宫颈
cheilo ==唇
chemo ==化学
chlorhydro ==盐酸
chole ==胆汁
cholecysto ==胆囊
choledocho ==总胆管
chondro ==软骨
chorio ==绒膜
chromo ==颜色
cineo ==活动
claviculo ==锁骨
cocco ==球菌
coccygo ==尾骨
cochleo ==耳蜗
collo ==胶
colo ==结肠
colpo ==阴道
conjunctivo ==结膜
coreo ==瞳孔,虹膜
corneo ==角,角膜
corono ==冠
costo ==肋
cranio ==颅骨
cryo ==冷
crypto ==隐藏
culdo ==囊袋、窝
cuti ==皮肤
cyclo ==环
cyeso ==妊娠
cysto ==膀胱,囊

dic/dict == say;speak indicate 指示,暗示 dictate 口授 diction 措词
domin == rule;control dominate 主宰 indomitable 不屈不挠的
duce/duct == lead;take introduce 介绍 induce 引诱 conduct 指导
equ == same;equal equality 平等 equivalence 对应物 equator 赤道

dacryo ==眼泪
dactylo ==指头
denti ==牙齿
dentino ==牙本质
dermato ==皮肤
dermo ==皮肤
diaphoro ==汗
diaphragmato ==膈
diaphragmo ==膈
dipso ==渴
duodeno ==十二指肠
embryo ==胚胎
emeo ==呕吐
encephalo ==脑
entero ==小肠
epididymo ==附睾
epiglotto ==会厌
episio ==外阴
ergo ==工作,能力
esophago ==食道
esthesio ==感觉
eustachio ==咽骨管

faci == easy facile 易得到的,不花力气的 facilitate 使…容易
fact == make;do manufacture 制造 factory 工厂 benefactor 恩人,施恩者
fer == carry;bring ferry 轮渡 transfer 搬运,转移 interfere 干预
fin == end;limit finalize 使…了结 infinite 无限的 define 限定,下定义
flect/flex == bend reflect 反射,反映 flexible 易弯曲的 reflexctor 反射镜
flu == flow influence 影响 fluent 流利 fluid 流动的;液,流体
form == shape reform 改革 conform 符合
frag == break fragile 易碎的 fragment 碎片 fracture 骨折

fasciculo ==束
fascio ==筋膜
febri ==发热
feca ==粪便
femoro ==股骨
fero ==传递,输送
ferro ==铁
fibrino ==纤维素
fibro ==纤维
fibro ==纤维
fibulo ==腓骨
fistulo ==瘘
folliculo ==小腔,囊gen == produce generate 产生 genetics 遗传学 genesis 起源,创始
geo == land;earth geology 地理学 geometry 几何学 geocide 地球末日
grad == go;step graduate 毕业 gradual 逐步的 degrade 退化,堕落
graph/gram == write;writing telegraph 电报 program 节目,说明书 diagram 图表
grate/grati == thanks grateful 衷心感谢的 gratitude 感谢
grav == heavy;serious gravity 重力;严重性 grave 严重的 gravimeter 比重计,测重器
gress == go;walk progress 进步 aggressive 侵略的 congress 会议

galacto ==乳
gameto ==配子
ganglio ==神经节
gangliono ==神经节
gastro ==胃
genito ==生殖器
gero ==年龄
geronto ==年龄
gingivo ==牙龈
glio ==胶质,粘
globo ==球
glomerulo ==小球
glosso ==舌
gluco ==糖
glyco ==糖
gnatho ==颌
gonado ==性腺
gono ==生殖器
granulo ==结节
gravido ==妊娠
gyneco ==女性herb == grass herbal 草本植物的;草药书 herby 长满草的,似草的
humid == wet humidity 湿度,湿气 humidify 使湿润
hydr == water;liquid hydroelectric 水电的 hydroplane 水上飞机 hydrospace 海洋世界
ject == throw eject 喷射;逐出 inject 注射 reject 拒绝
juven == young juvenile 青少年 rejuvenate (使)返老还童 juvenilia 少年文艺读物
just/jur == just justify 证明正确 jurist 法学家 jury 陪审团

halo ==盐
hemato ==血
hemo ==血
hepato ==肝
hernio ==疝
hidro ==汗
histo ==组织
holo ==整个
humero ==肱骨
hyalo ==透明的
hydro ==水
hypno ==睡眠
hystero ==子宫
ictero ==黄疸
idio ==自己
ileo ==回肠
ilio ==髂骨
immuno ==免疫
incudo ==砧骨
ino ==纤维
iono ==离子
ionto ==离子
irido ==虹膜
iro ==虹膜
ischio ==坐骨
iso ==异,相等
jejuno ==空肠
kal ==钾
karyo ==核
kerato ==角质,硬
kerato ==角膜
klepto ==偷窃
kypho ==驼背
labor == work laborious 费力的 collaborate 合作,协作
later == side;party bilateral 双边的 unilateral 单方的 equilateral 等边的
leg == law legislate 立法 illegitimate 非法的 legislature 立法机关
literat == letter literature 文学 illiterate 文盲 semiliterate 半文盲的
loc == place location 地点 allocate 分配 localism 地方主义
lumi == light;bright illuminate 照明 illuminance 照明度 luminary 发光体,杰出人物

labio ==唇
labyrintho ==迷路
lacrimo ==眼泪,泪小管
lamino ==椎板
laparo ==腹壁
laryngo ==喉
linguo ==舌
lipo ==脂肪
litho ==石
lobo ==叶
lordo ==弯曲
luco ==光,透明
lumbo ==腰
lympho ==淋巴
magni == big;great magnificent 宏大的 magnify 放大 magnitude 巨大,广大
man == hand manufacture 生产,加工 manage 管理 manuscript 手稿
mar == sea submarine 潜艇 maritime 海事的,海运的 mariner 海员
meter/metri == measure thermemeter 温度计 altimeter 高度计
mit/miss == send emit 放射 vomit 呕吐 transmission 播送,传送
mort == death mortal 致命的 immortal 不朽的 postmortem 死后的

nomin == name nominal 名义上 nominate 提名 innominate 无名的,匿名的
nounce == proclaim pronounce 发音 denounce 公开指责

ortho == straight;correct orthodox 正统的 orthopaedy 矫正术

malleo ==锤骨
mammo ==乳房
mandibulo ==下颌骨
masto ==乳房
maxillo ==上颌骨
mediastino ==纵隔
mega ==大
megalo ==大
meningio ==脑膜
meningo ==脑膜
meno ==月经
mento ==颏
mento ==精神、心理
mero ==部分
mesentero ==肠系膜
meso ==中间的
metacarpo ==掌骨
metatarso ==柘骨
metro ==子宫
micro ==微
muco ==粘液
musculo ==肌肉
muto ==变化,突变
myco ==真菌
myelino ==髓
myelo ==脊髓,骨髓
myo ==肌肉
myoso ==肌肉
myringo ==耳鼓
myxo ==粘液
narco ==麻木
naso ==鼻
natri ==钠
necro ==死亡
neo ==新
nephro ==肾
neuro ==神经
nodo ==结
nucleo ==核
obstetrico ==产科
occluso ==牙(牙合)
oculo ==眼
odonto ==牙齿
olecrano ==肘
oligo ==少
omento ==网膜
omphalo ==脐
onco ==肿瘤,块
onycho ==甲,甲床
ooo ==卵子
oophoro ==卵巢
ophthalmo ==眼
orchido ==睾丸
orchio ==睾丸
orexi ==食欲
oro ==口
ortho ==直的
osteo ==骨
oto ==耳
ovario ==卵巢
ovo ==卵子
oxo ==氧
oxy ==氧
pater/patr == father paternal 父亲般的 patriarch (男性)族长 patricide 弑父;杀父者
pathy == feeling sympathy 同情 antipathy 反感 empathy 移情
ped == foot pedestrain 行人 expedition 远征(队) pedal 足的;踏板
pel/pulse == push;drive expel 驱逐 impulse 冲动 dispel 驱散
pend/pens == use up;hang expense 花费 expenditure 开支 suspend 悬浮;使悬而未决
phon == sound headphone 耳机 symphony 交响乐 microphone 麦克风
plic = fold duplicate 二倍的,副本 complication 综合症;并发症;复杂 implicit 含蓄的
port == carry porter 脚夫 export 出口 passport 护照
pose == put;place propose 建议 dispose 处理 expose 使暴露,揭发
prim == initial;first primary 初级的 primitive 原始的 prime 首要的,最初的
psych == mind psychology 心理学 psychoanalysis 心理分析
punct == point punctuate 加标点 acupuncture 针灸 punctual 准时的,精确的

rupt == break corruption *** interrupt 打断 bankrupt 破产

palato ==腭
pallio ==减轻
palpebro ==睑
pancreato ==胰腺
papillo ==乳头状突起
par(t)o ==娩出
parasympathetico ==副交感
parasympathico ==副交感
parasympatho ==副交感
parathyroido ==甲状旁腺
patello ==髌骨
pectoro ==胸
pelvo ==骨盆
peno ==阴茎
pepsi ==消化
pepti ==消化
perineo ==会阴
peritoneo ==腹膜
phaco ==晶体
phago ==吞噬
phalango ==指骨
phallo ==阴茎
pharmaco ==药
pharyngo ==咽
pharyngo ==咽
philo ==嗜
phlebo ==静脉
photo ==光,透明
phrenico ==膈神经
phreno ==膈
pilo ==毛发
pinealo ==松果体
plasmo ==浆
pleuro ==胸膜
pneumo ==气,肺
pneumono ==气,肺
podo ==足
polypo ==息肉
procto ==肛门和直肠
prostato ==前列腺
prostho ==假牙,义肢
pseudo ==假
psycho ==精神、心理
ptyalo ==唾液
ptyo ==唾液
pubio ==耻骨
pubo ==耻骨
pulmo ==肺
pulmono ==肺
pupillo ==瞳孔
pyelo ==肾盂
pyloro ==幽门
pyo ==脓
pyro ==热
rachio ==脊柱
radico ==根治
radio ==桡骨
radio ==放射
ramo ==分支
recto ==直肠
reno ==肾
reticulo ==网
retino ==视网膜
retro ==向后
rhino ==鼻
roentgeno ==X线
scop == see;look at microscopic 微观的 macroscopic 宏观的
scope == instrument for observing microscope 显微镜 telescope 望远镜
scribe/script == write;writing;look at describe 描述 prescription 处方
sequ == follow consequence 后果 sequence 次序 sequel 结局,续集
sens/sent == sense;feeling sentimental 多愁善感的 sensitivity 灵敏度 consent 赞同
simil == like similarity 共性 simile 明喻 similar 类似的
sol == alone sole 唯一的 solitary 单独的 soliloquy 独白
soph == wise philosopher 哲学家 sophisticated 老练的,尖端的 pansophic 无所不知的
spec == see;look at inspect 视察 expect 盼望 retrospect 回顾
suspect 怀疑 prospect 展望 respect 尊敬
spir == breathe respiration 呼吸 perspire 出汗 expire 死亡断气
struct == build constructive 富有建设性的 superstructure 上层建筑 destruction 毁灭
stup == be motionless stupid 愚蠢 stupefy 使麻木;使呆若木鸡 stupor 昏迷,麻木
sum == use up;take consumption 消费 assume 自以为 resume 继续进行

saccharo ==糖
sacculo ==小囊
sacro ==骶骨
saliva ==唾液
salpingo ==管
salpingo ==管,输卵管
sarco ==肉
sarco ==肉瘤
scapulo ==肩胛
schizo ==分裂
schizo ==分裂
sclero ==巩膜
sclerosis 后缀硬化
scolio ==弯曲
scroto ==阴囊
sebo ==油脂
seco ==切
semino ==精子
septo ==腐败
sero ==血清
sialadeno ==唾液腺
sialo ==唾液
sidero ==铁
sigmoido ==乙状结肠
silico ==硅
sino ==窦
somato ==体
somni ==睡眠
sono ==声
sopori ==沉睡
spasmo ==痉挛
spermato ==精子
spermo ==精子
sphinctero ==括约肌
sphygmo ==脉搏
spino ==脊髓
spiro ==呼吸
splanchno ==内脏
spleno ==脾
spondylo ==椎骨
stapedo ==镫骨
staphylo ==束
steato ==脂肪
stereo ==立体
sterno ==胸骨
stero ==固
stetho ==胸
stomato ==口
submaxillo ==下颌骨
succo ==分泌
sudoro ==汗
surgico ==外科
sympathetico ==交感
sympathico ==交感
sympatho ==交感
syndesmo ==韧带
synovio ==滑液
syringo ==瘘管tain == hold maintain 维持 attain 获得 abstain 放弃,戒,禁
the == god theology 神学 theist 有神论者 atheism 无神论
thermo == heat thermometer 温度计 thermonuclear 热核的 thermos 热水瓶
tract == draw tractor 拽引机,拖拉机 attract 吸引 distract 分散

tacho ==快速
talo ==踝,距骨
tarso ==踝,跗骨
tel ==远的
tele ==远的
tendino ==腱
tendo ==腱
teno ==腱
terato ==畸胎
testo ==睾丸
tetra 前缀四
thalamo ==丘脑
thio ==硫
thoraco ==胸
thrombo ==凝
thymo ==胸腺
thyro ==甲状腺
thyroido ==甲状腺
tibio ==胫骨
toco ==出生,分娩
tono ==紧张度
tono ==紧张
tonsillo ==扁桃体
topo ==地方
toxico ==毒
toxo ==毒
trachelo ==子宫颈
tracheo ==气管
tricho ==毛发
tubulo ==小管
tumo ==肿瘤,肿胀
tussi ==咳嗽
tympano ==鼓室vent == come advent 来到,出现 convention 会议 contravention 违反,抵触
verb == word verbal 词语的,动词的 hyperverbal 说话太多的
vert/vers == turn convert 转移 version 译本 subvert 推翻,颠覆
vid/vis == see vision 视力,视觉 invisible 看不见的 visibility 能见度
viv == life vivid 生动的 revive 复活 survive 幸存,逃生
voc/vok == call;voice evoke 唤起,召唤 advocate 倡议,倡导 vocalist 歌唱家,声乐家
volv == roll revolver 左轮手枪;转炉 revolution 革命 evolve 进化,演化

ulno ==尺骨
umbilico ==脐
unguo ==甲,爪
uretero ==输尿管
urethro ==尿道
uro ==尿
utero ==子宫
utriculo ==小囊
uvulo ==悬雍垂
vagino ==阴道
vago ==迷走神经
valvo ==瓣
varico ==扭曲的静脉
vaso ==血管
vaso ==输精管
veno ==静脉
ventriculo ==脑室
ventro ==腹侧
venulo ==小静脉
verruco ==疣
vertebro ==椎骨
vesico ==膀胱
vesiculo ==精囊
vestibulo ==中耳的中部
viro ==病毒
vito ==生命
vulvo ==外阴
zoo ==生物常用的后缀

后缀在缀合法中只起改变词性的作用,不改变词根的含意,这在第一章内已叙述。现将常用后缀分一般英语后缀及医学英语后缀两部分来说明。
第一节 常用的一般英语后缀
因词性不同、后缀可分为名词性、形容词性、动词性及副词性后缀,现列举于下。

一、名词性后缀
1,-age为抽象名词后缀,表示行为,状态和全体总称
percentage百分数,百分率,voltage电压,伏特数,lavage灌洗,洗,出法,gavage管词法,curettage刮除法,shortage不足,缺少。
2,-cy表示抽象名词
accuracy 准确,精确度,infancy婴儿期。
3,-ence、-ance表示性质和动作
difference不同,interference干扰,干预,influence影响,感化,occurrence发出,出现,violence激烈,暴力,existence存在,significance意义,意味。
4,-ency、-ancy抽象名词后缀
difficiency不足,不全,tendency趋势,趋向,frequency频率,pregnancy妊娠,emergency紧急,急救,fluency流利,流畅,sufficiency足够,充足,constancy坚定,经久不变。
5,-er表示…人、…者
diameter直径,receiver接收者,接受者,carrier 携带者,beginner初学者,创始人,reader读者,shutter 快门,goiter甲状腺肿。
6,-ics 表示…科学
psdiatrics儿科学,psychiatrics精神病学,obstetrics产科学,orthopdics矫形科学,auristrics耳科学,gnathostomatics口腔生理学,andriatrics男性医学,男性科。
7,-ian表示人称名词
physician医师,内科医师,technician技术员
8,-ication 由动词变化而来的抽象名词,常译为…化
simpliffcation 简化,calcification钙化,classification分类,分级, communication交流,交往。
9,-ing由动词变化而来的动名词
nursing护理,typing分型,分类,mapping绘制…图,bleeding出血,vomiting呕吐,softening变软,functioning使器官活动,使器官有功能,positioning 把…放在适当的位置,mathching和…相配,imaging成像。
10,-ion 由动词构成的名词
occasion偶然原因,近因,时机,division分割,分开,vision视力,视觉,distortion扭曲,变形。
11,-ism表示制度,主义及现象等的抽象名词
mehanism机理,机制,autism孤独性。
12,-ist表示人称名词
specialist专家,internist内科医生,padiatrist儿科学家,biololgist生物学家,economist经济学家,chemist化学家,obstetrist产科学家,产科医师。
13,-ization由动词构成的抽象名词
recanalization再管化,再通化,chatheterization插管,immunization免疫法,预防接种,organization组织,机构,机化,hospitalization住院,normalization正常化,ketonization酮化作用。
14,-logy表示学科
morphology形态学,histology组织学,neurology神经学,embryology胚胎学,radiology放射学,laryngorhinology喉鼻科学,proctology直肠学,hexiology个体,生态学。
15,-ment表示动作,行为或具体事物
measurement 测量,量度,experiment实验,instrument 仪器,器械,integument体被,皮肤,segment节段,fragment片段,断片,碎片,replacement替代,置换,increment增长,增殖,development发育,显影,movement动作,活动,ligment韧带,equipment器材,装置,设备,improvement改善。
16,-ness加在形容词后构成抽象名词
tenderness触痛,hardness坚硬,thickness厚度,effectiveness有效,usefulness有用的,coldness寒冷,dampness潮湿,darkness 黑暗,shallowness浅,permanentness永久,brightness明亮。
17,-or表示…人,…物
inhibitor抑制物,doctor医生,monitor监视器,donor给血者,供体,director主任,factor因素, operator操作者,手术者。
18,-ry表示集合名词
laboratory实验室,chemistry化学。
19,-ship表示状态
relationship关系,联系,interrelationship 相互关系,相互联系。
20,-th由形容词构成名词
length长度,width宽度,depth深度,truth真理。
21,-ty表示性质
rigidity强直,僵硬,speciality特征,专业,responsibility责任,责任心,capacity容量,智能,能力,mortality死亡率,morbidity发病率,nocturnality夜间,safty 安全性,conductivty传导性,permeability渗透性,property性质,plenty丰富,unity整体,统一性,obesity肥胖,similarity类似,相似。
22,-ure表示行为结果
failure衰竭,pressure 压力,curvature弯曲,fissure裂隙,裂,puncture穿刺,rupture破裂,structure结构,seizure发作,nomenclature名称,术语。

二、形容词性后缀

1,-able表示可能的,可以的
excitable易兴备的,acceptable易接受的,movable可移动的,alterable可改变的,可改动的,available可用的,可得到的,uncomfortable不舒的。
2,-al表示有…的属性
regional 局部的natural自然的,special特别的,特殊的,spinal脊髓的,central 中央的,vertrbral脊柱的,cervical颈的,mural壁的,terminal末端的,typical典型的,digital手指的,数字的,temperal暂时的,短暂的,capital首要的,重要的,vocal有声的,声带的,several几个,parasternal胸骨旁的。
3,-ant有些是从动词派生来的
significant在意义的,persistant持久的,坚持的(从动词persist来的),resistant抵抗的,反抗的(自动词resist派生),important重要的,infant婴儿的,constant坚定的,持久的,pernanent永久的。
4,-ar表示…特征的,…形状的
regular规则的,muscular肌肉的,circular环形的,圆的,anular环的。
5,-ary 表示与…有关的
ordinary平常的,通常的,anniversary周年的,voluntary自愿的,随意的。
6,-ed 用于名词加ed,转化为形容词,或动词过去分词作形容词。
Coded加密码的(名词code 加ed),colored加颜色的,deposited被沉淀的(由动词deposite加ed),curved使…弯曲的,limited有限的,lubricated滑润的,使滑润的,surrounded围住的,被围绕的。
7,-ent与-ant同类
consistent坚定的,different不同的,sufficient足够的,convenient便利的,方便的,evident明显的,fluent流利的,流畅的,efficient有效的,frequent常常的,频繁的。
8,-ful由名词构成形容词
useful有用的,successful成功的,plentiful丰富的,helpful有帮助的。
9,-ible与-able相同。
Visible可见的,irreversible 不可逆的,impossible不可能的,inaudible听不见的。
10,-ic加在外来词根的名词上,构成形容词
specific特异的,magnetic磁性的,aerobic需氧的,pubic耻骨的,oxytocic催产的、催产剂,therapeutic治疗的,dramatic戏剧性的,icteric黄疸的,dynamic动力的,hemolytic溶血的。
11,-ish加在颜色的形容词上,表示略带…色
reddish带红色的,微红的,yellowish带黄色的,微黄的。
12,-ive由动词构成形容词
relative有关的,相关的(由动词relat派生的),sensitive灵敏的,congestive充血性的,imaginative想象、富有想象力的,imitative摹仿的, repetitive重复的,reproductive生殖的,contractive收缩的,conservative保守的,circulative循环的,effective有效的,invasive侵入性的。
13,-less表示没有…的
useless无用的,lifeless无生命的,hopeless绝望的、医治不好的,fruitless无效的、无益的。
14,-ory表示…性质的,属于…的。
sensory感觉的,accessory附属的、附加的,circulatory循环的,urinary泌尿的,尿的。
15,-ous表示具有…的、有…特性的。
dangerous有危险的,continuous在连续性的、连续的,serious严重的,various各种的,vigorous强有力的,apueous水的,generous大量的,丰盛的,tremendous可怕的,惊人的,previous以前的,pervious能通过的、能穿过的。

三、动词性后缀
1,-ate多用于外来词构成动词
deviate背离、偏离,decelerate减速,accelerate加速,degenerate变性,operate操作,手术,defibrillate除颤,vibrate振动、颤动,migrate移动,angulate成角,anticipate预期、期望,abbreviate缩写,antecede在…之前。
2,-en形容词构成动词,表示变、加、使…
weaken变弱、变衰弱,soften使…软化,thicken使…变厚,strenghten加强,shorten使…变短,wooden木制的,deepen加深、深化,harden使…变硬,lengthen使…延长,loosen放松、解开,quicken加快、刺激,roughen变粗糙,lighten减轻,sharpen变尖锐。
3,-ize加在形容词或名词上,表示…化neutralize中和,standardize标准化,mineralize矿物质化,repolarize复极化,depolarize去极化,sensitize致敏,metastasize转移。

四、副词性后缀

1,-ly由形容构成的副词,最为常用,表示……地
simaltaneously同时地,concurrently同时地,widely广泛地,excrusively专用地、唯一地,scarcely仅仅、刚刚,immediately立即。
2,-ward(s)加在前置词上,构成副词,表示方向
backward(s)向后,upward(s)向上。
Suffixes Related to Conditions

Suffix
Meaning
Example
Define

-algia
pain and suffering
gastralgia pain in the stomach

-cele
hernia
hepatocele swelling of liver

-dynia
pain
gastrodynia
pain in the stomach

-dynia
pain
gastrodynia
stomachache

-ectasis
dilation, expansion
bronchiectasis
dilation of bronchus

-emesis
vomiting
hyperemesis
excessive vomiting

-gen
forming, producing, origin
carcinogen
substances causing cancer

-gensis
forming, producing, origin
osteogensis
forming of bone

-iasis
abnormal condition
cholelithiasis
stone in the gallbladder

-lith
stone, calculus
cholelilth
stone in the gallbladder

-itis
inflammation
gastritis
inflammation of stomach

-malacia
abnormal softening
arteriomalacia
the abnormal softening of the walls of an artery or arteries

-megaly
large, enlargement
cardiomegaly
an enlargement of the heart

–necrosis
death of tissue
arterionecrosis
the necrosis (tissue death) of an artery or abnormal condition

-oid
resembling
lipoid
like fat

-oma
tumor
adenoma
tumor of gland

-osis
disease or abnormal condition
gastrosis
any disease of the stomach

-para
to bear (offspring)
multipara
woman having borne more than one child

-paresis
partial paralysis
hemiparesis
partially paralysis

-pathy
disease
neuropathy
nervous system disorders

-penia
decrease
leukopenia
decrease in the number of white blood cells

-phagia
eating, swallowing
dysphagia
difficult eating

–phasia
speech
aphasia
失语

-philia
attraction for
hemophilia
血友病

-phobia
fear
claustrophobia
幽闭恐怖症

-plasia
formation, growth
hyperplasia
增生

-plegia
paralysis
hemiplegia

-poiesis
formation, production
hemopoiesis

-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
hysterptosis

-rrhage
-rrhagia
bursting forth
menorrhagia
excessive menses

-rrhea
discharge, flow
diarrhea
lose bowels

-rhexis
rupture
angiorrhexis

-sclerosis
abnormal hardening
arteriosclerosis
the abnormal hardening of the walls an artery or arteries

-spasm
involuntary contraction
blepharospasm (eyelid)

-stasis
stanging still
hemostasis

-stenosis
abnormal tightening or narrowing
arteiostenosis
the abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries

-trophy
development
hypertrophy
the enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells.

-um
structure or tissue
peristeum
the tissue covering of bone

Part One Surgical Procedures: Suffixes

SUFFIX
MEANING
EXAMPLE

-ectomy
cutting out, removal
appendectomy (surgical removal of the appendix)

ostomy
a new permanent opening (to outside of body) or (reunited inner structure)
colostomy

-otomy
cutting into, incision
colostomy (the surgical creation of a new opening between the colon and the surface of the body)
phlebotomy

-orrhaphy
surgical repair

fixation or suturing (a type of repair)
nephrorrhaphy (the operation of suturing the kidney)

-otripsy
crushing, destroying

-o/centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid
thoracocentesis

laparocentesis

arthrocentesis

– o/plasty
plastic surgery (surgical reforming or molding to improve function; to relieve pain; for cosmetic reasons)

-tome
instrument to cut
osteotome (骨凿)

-desis
binding, fixation
arthrodesis (关节固定)

-clasis
break, fracture
osteoclasis (骨折)

-lysis
separation
enterolysis

-o/scope
instrument for looking into
arthroscope
instrument for looking into joint

cystoscope
instrument for looking into bladder

otoscope
instrument for looking into ear

-o/scopy
procedure using a scope
colonoscopy
an examination of colon

cystoscopy
an examination of bladder

otoscopy
an examination_of ear

-(o)graph
instrument (or machine
electroencephalograph (EEG)
an instrument that records electric activity of brain

-graphy
process of recording
cardiography
the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart)

-gram
record or picture
cardiogram
a record of the electrical activity of heart

-meter
an instrument used to measue
pelvimeter
an instrument used to measure the diameter and capacity of the pelvic

-metry
the process of measureing
pelvimetry
the process of measuring the dimension of the pelvic

agra ==严重的疼痛
algia ==痛
ase ==酶
blast ==母细胞
capnia ==二氧化碳
carcinoma ==癌
cele ==突出、积水
centesis ==穿刺术
clasis ==破裂
clast ==破坏用器械
cleisis ==关闭
clysis ==洗
crine ==分泌
cyte ==细胞
ectasia ==扩张
ectasis ==扩张
ecto 前缀外
ectomy ==切除术
emia ==血的状况
emia ==血
emphraxis ==梗阻
geusia ==味
ggnosis ==知识
gram ==记录
graph ==记录
graphy ==记录
helcosis ==溃疡形成
ia ==状况
iatrics ==愈合
iatry ==愈合
in ==素
ism ==状况
ist ==者
itis ==炎
ium ==部分
kinesia ==移动
kleisis ==关闭
lalia ==言语
lithiasis ==结石
logist ==学者
logy ==学科
lysis ==溶解
malacia ==软化
mania ==极端、强制、偏见
meter ==测量工具
metry ==测量
odynia ==痛
oid ==象…样的
oma ==瘤
opia ==视觉
or ==器具,者
orrhagia ==大量流出
orrhaphy ==缝合术
orrhea ==流出、分泌
orrhexis ==破裂
osis ==病理状况
ostomy ==造口或吻合
ous ==含…的,分泌…的
pathy ==病理状况
penia ==不足
pexy ==固定
phobia ==害怕
phrenia ==精神、心理
phylaxis ==保卫
physis ==生长
plasia ==形成
plasm ==形成的东西
plasty ==成形
plegia ==麻痹
pnea ==呼吸
poiesis ==产生
ptosis ==下垂
sarcoma ==肉瘤
schesis ==抑制排出
sclerosis ==硬化
scope ==镜
scopy ==镜检查
stasis ==制止、停止
stasis ==停止
stenosis ==狭窄
surgery ==外科
taxis ==排列
therapy ==治疗
tome ==切开器具
tomy ==切开术
tripsy ==压碎
tropin ==激素
uria ==尿

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